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The Science and Solutions of Global Warming: A Comprehensive PDF Guide


Global warming and climate change refer to an increase in average global temperatures. Natural events and human activities are believed to be main contributors to such increases in average global temperatures. The climate change, caused by rising emissions of carbon dioxide from vehicles, factories and power stations, will not only effects the atmosphere and the sea but also will alter the geology of the Earth. Emissions of carbon dioxide due to our use of fossil energy will change the climate and the temperature is estimated to increase by 2 to 6o Celsius within year 2100, which is a tremendous increase from our current average temperature of 1.7o Celsius as predicted by IPCC. This may cause huge changes to our civilization, both positive and negative, but the total impact on our society is currently very uncertain. Forecasts indicate that major storms could devastate New York City in next decade whereas Gulf countries will get affected badly well before.




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With increases in the Earth's global mean temperature i.e., global warming, the various effects on climate change pose risks that increases. The IPCC (2001d and 2007d) has organized many of these risks into five "reasons for concern:


The effects, or impacts, of climate change may be physical, ecological, social or economic. Evidence of observed climate change includes the instrumental temperature record, rising sea levels, and decreased snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007a:10), "[most] of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in [human greenhouse gas] concentrations". It is predicted that future climate changes will include further global warming (i.e., an upward trend in global mean temperature), sea level rise, and a probable increase in the frequency of some extreme weather events. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has agreed to implement policies designed to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases.


There are two studied made here to elaborate the risk of intense rain fall one by United States and other one by United Kingdom. They have warned that these risks are due to extreme climate change, thus we have to curb the global warming issues in phases. The summaries of study are given below:


The amount of warming and the depth of water affected vary with location. In addition, warmer water expands more than colder water for a given change in temperature. The geographical distribution of sea level change results from the geographical variation of thermal expansion, changes in salinity, winds, and ocean circulation. The range of regional variation is substantial compared with the global average sea level rise.


The most recent report IPCC projected that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further1.1 to 2.9 C (2 to 5.2 F) for the lowest emissions scenario used in the report and 2.4 to 6.4 C (4.3 to 11.5 F) for the highest (Fig.4).


Observations show that there have been changes in weather (Le Treut H, et. al., 2007). As climate changes, the probabilities of certain types of weather events are affected. Changes have been observed in the amount, intensity, frequency, and type of precipitation. Widespread increases in heavy precipitation have occurred, even in places where total rain amounts have decreased. IPCC (2007d) concluded that human influences had, more likely than not (greater than 50% probability, based on expert judgment), contributed to an increase in the frequency of heavy precipitation events. Projections of future changes in precipitation show overall increases in the global average, but with substantial shifts in where and how precipitation falls. Climate models tend to project increasing precipitation at high latitudes and in the tropics (e.g., the south-east monsoon region and over the tropical Pacific) and decreasing precipitation in the sub-tropics (e.g., over much of North Africa and the northern Sahara).


A build-up of permafrost methane in the atmosphere would produce a further jump in global warming and accelerate the process of climate change. Even more worrying, however, is the impact of rising sea temperatures on the far greater reserves of methane hydrates that are found on the sea floor. It was not just the warming of the sea that was the problem, added Maslin. As the ice around Greenland and Antarctica melted, sediments would pour off land masses and cliffs would crumble, triggering underwater landslides that would break open more hydrate reserves on the sea-bed. Again there would be a jump in global warming. These are key issues that we will have to investigate over the next few years, he said.


Climate change is likely to cause more storms, floods, droughts, heatwaves and other extreme weather events, according to the most authoritative review yet of the effects of global warming. Report likely to conclude that man-made emissions are increasing the frequency of storms, floods and droughts on Thursday- 17 November 2011 16.32 GMT from New York. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change will publish on 18 November 2011, its first special report on extreme weather, and its relationship to rising greenhouse gas emissions. The final details are being fought over by governments, as the "summary for policymakers" of the report has to be agreed in full by every nation that chooses to be involved. But the conclusions are expected to be that emissions from human activities are increasing the frequency of extreme weather events. In particular, there are likely to be many more heatwaves, droughts and changes in rainfall patterns.


Jake Schmidt of the US-based Natural Resources Defense Council said: This report should be a wake-up call to those that believe that climate change is some distant issue that might impact someone else. The report documents that extreme weather is happening now and that global warming will bring very dangerous events in the future. From the report you can see that extreme weather will impact everyone in one way or another. This is a window into the future if our political response doesn't change quickly.


The IPCC, a body of the world's leading climate scientists convened by the United Nations, is likely to conclude that extreme weather can be linked to man-made climate change, but that individual weather events can at present only rarely be linked directly to global warming.


Insurers are also worried. Mark Way, of the insurance giant Swiss Re, told the Guardian that the massive increase in insurance claims was causing serious concern. He said that between 1970 and 1989, the insurance industry globally had paid out an average of $5bn a year in weather-related claims, but that this had increased enormously to $27bn a year. Although not all of this was attributable to climate change - increasing population, urbanisation and prosperity also play a major part - he said insurers wanted governments to get to grips with the effects of climate change in order to prepare for likely damage and tackle the causes of global warming.


1. What is global warming?2. What causes global warming?3. What is climate change? Is it different from global warming?4. What is a climate change impact?5. What does global warming have to do with severe weather, like storms, heat waves, droughts, and hurricanes?6. If global warming is real, why is it so cold and snowy this winter? (The difference between climate and weather.)7. What does global warming have to do with rising sea levels?8. What is ocean acidification?9. What does production of meat and dairy products have to do with climate change?10. What does climate change have to do with health?11. How does climate change affect the food supply?12. What is a carbon footprint, and how can I reduce my carbon footprint?13. What are renewable sources of energy?14. What is energy efficiency?15. What is climate change adaptation?16. What is climate change mitigation?17. What is climate change resilience?18. What is the United States doing to address climate change?19. What are corporations doing to combat climate change?20. What is the United Nations doing to combat climate change?21. What is climate finance?22. Is there hope that we will be able to address climate change before it is too late?Other recommended climate change FAQs elsewhere on the web


Higher concentrations of these greenhouse gases in the atmosphere trap more heat on Earth, causing an anthropogenic (i.e., human-caused) rise in global temperatures. Climate scientists agree that human activity is the main driver behind the global warming we are experiencing.


The rise in average global temperatures because of human activities has many impacts on the planet, including more intense and frequent droughts and storms, melting glaciers and ice sheets, rising sea levels, warming oceans, and ocean acidification (see question 8). People around the world are already feeling the impact of climate change on the environment. Changing weather patterns can ruin crops and cause serious water shortages. Rising sea levels are threatening low-lying islands and coastal cities. Tropical and insect-borne diseases are spreading as their hosts move into new habitats that were previously too cold for them to survive.


It is difficult for researchers to attribute a specific weather event to global warming. Nevertheless, climate scientists are confident that higher average global temperatures are making extreme weather more likely and severe. The United States is seeing a clear increase in the number of destructive weather and climate disasters combined with increased development in coastal and river floodplains (i.e., more people and infrastructure in these areas to be impacted). The table below from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) shows the number and impact of billion-dollar disasters by decade from 1980-2019.


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